This is a picture of an AKG C414 XLS. This is fairly typical of the type of condenser micthat you would find being used in recording studios.
Look carefully at the icons below the XLS badge on the mic below. We will be talking about what these are for next.
Microphones pick up sounds in a pattern around them & these pattern can vary from mic to mic, or indeed can be changed by means of a switch on some models such as this AKG C414XLS.
The POLAR PATTERN of a mic is a diagram showing what parts of the mic are sensitive to sound & what parts are not. The diagram below should help to explain. If an imaginary circle is drawn around a mic we can then plot at which angles the mic is sensitive to sound.